The Law on Education (in force as of 1 June 1999) chapter 46, article 3
states: “The content of adult education programmes, the procedure for developing and
approving these programmes, standards of adult education, funding and other issues are
regulated by the Law on Adult Education and other laws” (note: adult education in the
Latvian context is understood as any education pursued by adult persons, and is not
equated to literacy and numeracy courses, as in adult basic education). The Law on Adult
Education is yet to be passed, although the draft of this law was already submitted to the
Saeima (parliament) in 1998. Currently adult education is regulated by the following laws:
the Law on Craftsmanship (1993), the Law on Employment (1993) and the Law on Vocational
3.5.9. Weaknesses, strengths and future government priorities in CVT
- The supply of CVT programmes is very wide. The number of education providers is large,
every district has its adult education centre.
- Professional associations, chambers etc look after continuing vocational training of
their members. Sometimes continuing education is compulsory for continuing practising, for
example, for receiving certificate etc. It makes people to educate and improves their
competitiveness in labour market.
- CVT can quickly react to changes in legislation, technologies, working methods and
- The legislation is not worked out. The responsibilities of state, local governments,
employers and employees are not determined.
- There is an emerging trend of CVT
commercialisation. So it can be considered that access to CVT is not equal for all. The
only possibility for needy population to participate in CVT is become unemployed.
- There are no normative acts stimulating the participation of employers in continuing
education of employees. If large and economically stable enterprises can afford to invest
in the education of their employees then small enterprises are struggling simply to
- There is no unified quality control system.
- There is no research on CVT needs. There is no unified state policy on CVT.
The MoES has worked out a draft Education Development Programme 2000 -
2004. One of its objectives is the development of society through ensured opportunities
for life long learning.
The main measures in order to realise this objective are:
1. To develop networking of adult education establishments to promote
2. To develop the system of quality assessment of CVT and distance learning programmes;
3. To continue introducing distance learning methods;
4. To strengthen the role of higher education establishments in the socio-economic
development of regions;
5. To promote the accessibility of education and to ensure the
population with information about adult education opportunities.
6. To promote the improvement of professional skills for CVT teachers and
7. To develop international co-operation in CVT.
3.6. Links between IVET and CVT
The links between IVET and CVT are very weak. IVET establishments are
now interested in offering continuing education programmes, but especially in Riga
different private institutions have outrivaled state IVET schools, as they could more
quickly respond to the demands of the market. Continuing vocational education programmes
are offered by 23 IVET schools, of which only 4 are located in Riga. That means in rural
areas IVET schools are a type of cultural and education centre.
3.7. Vocational guidance and
Vocational guidance and counselling are provided by the State
Employment Service, the Career Counselling Centre, and certain private enterprises.
Vocational guidance and counselling for the unemployed is provided by
the State Employment Service. The SES also organises Job-seekers’ Clubs, an active
employment measure, the goal of which is to use psycho-social rehabilitation to promote
initiative, capacity for re-training and psychological adaptability to new labour market
conditions, as well as to improve the readiness of the unemployed to meet labour market
demands. Each year more and more unemployed persons participate in JC activities.
The following group activities were organised with in the framework of
JC in 1999:
1. A course on “How to Find a Job” - attended by 7,607 unemployed.
2. Target group activities - these were attended by 1,388 unemployed in
3. Latvian language courses - attended by 642 unemployed with insufficient national
Other activities were attended by 13,737 unemployed: 2,900 unemployed
attended seminars with employers, local government representatives, SES and State Social
Insurance Agency staff; 6,432 unemployed attended lectures on career decisions and stress;
4,414 unemployed attended individual counselling sessions with psychologists, lawyers and
Career guidance for young people is provided by the state non-profit
organisation the Career Counselling Centre. The type of help most often sought for and
provided is the following:
consultations on education and career choice - selection of the most
suitable field of activity based on assessment of the client’s interests and aptitudes;
information on opportunities to acquire a chosen profession in
various education establishments;
acquisition of a structured profile of interests and abilities which
helps people make a conscious independent career choice;
evaluation of levels of professional qualities important to a certain
profession and suitability of the client for that profession;
consultations on different career paths and development of action
The total number of clients served by the Centre in 1999 was 16,067 (an
increase of 870 clients over 1998); among the clients were 10,174 students of graduating
classes in basic and secondary school, 4,104 registered unemployed persons, 284 students
of vocational schools, 193 students of higher education establishments, 376 unemployed
job-seekers, 570 employed and 366 parents of students.
Seventy-eight percent of the unemployed persons (or 20% of the total
number of clients) arrived at the Centre following orders of SES inspectors, but the rest
sought help independently.
Of all students of general and vocational schools and higher education
establishments who were clients of the Centre, 66% were girls and 34% were boys.
In April and May of 1999 the Career Counselling Centre performed a
survey of 9th and 12th grade students concerning career choice. A total of 1,340 students
from various urban and rural schools were surveyed.
On average, 55% of the students surveyed noted that they need
help in choosing a career, and 77% of students need information on education
establishments, furthermore this assistance is required most often by rural residents.
Students in the 9th grade most often wish to receive information on education
establishments and professions, but 12th grade students want to learn about education
establishments and the labour market. In the career decision process, girls most often
tend to analyse their personality and their level of knowledge, while boys tend to enquire
about actual work situations and conditions.
In 1999 assistance with finding employment was provided by 43
enterprises (27 were registered in 1999, of these 21 are entitled to assist in finding
employment in Latvia, while 6 are entitled to provide assistance in finding employment
abroad). As of 1999 the registration of enterprises providing assistance with finding
employment is regulated by the normative act passed by the Ministry of Welfare: “The
registration procedure for legal entities wishing to provide services to residents in the
form of assistance in gaining employment”. A decrease in the number of registered firms
has been observed, for example, in 1996 there were 73, in 1997 - 63, in 1998 - 58 and in
1999 - 43. This can be explained by the implementation of the new registration procedure
and reporting and control procedures. In 1999, 29 registration certificates were annulled
based on failure to meet responsibilities of legal entities involved in providing
assistance to residents in finding employment.
Internet employment exchanges are becoming more and more popular.
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