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The National Observatory’s report
to the European Training Foundation

Riga 2001


Authors - National Observatory project team:
Baiba Ramina, Vija Hodireva, Solvita Silina

Project team is grateful to: M.Behmane, I.Brensone, I.Buligina, I.Cvetkova, A.Joma, G.Krusts, Z.Priede, A.Rauhvargers, Dz.Tillere, I.Upeniece, I.Vadone

© Academic Information Centre -Latvian National Observatory, 2001



Executive summary
1. Socio-economic background
1.1. Economic development
1.2. Demography
2. Labour market background
2.1. Economic activity of the population
2.2. Employment
2.2.1. Structural changes in employment
2.2.2. Employment in the private sector
2.2.3. Employment opportunities for graduates
2.3. Unemployment
2.4. Labour market policy
2.5. Future skill needs of the economy
2.6. Conclusions as regards the key labour market issues and their influence on aspects of human resource development
3. Modernisation of VET in the perspective of life long learning
3.1. Introduction
3.2.  HRDStrategy and priorities of the National Development Plan
3.3. Preparations for European Social Fund (ESF) implementation
3.4. Modernisation of initial vocational education and training
3.4.1. Structure and organisation of the VET system The initial VET system as a part of the education system The entry to the initial VET system The training levels and certification of outputs Organisation of the training provision within each level Access to further levels of education and employment
3.4.2. Responsible bodies
3.4.3. Financing
3.4.4. Social dialog and involvement of social partners
3.4.5. Curriculum development
3.4.6. Legislation
3.4.7. Weaknesses, strengths and future government priorities for the IVET system
3.5. Modernisation of continuing vocational training (CVT)
3.5.1. CVT provision (from the supply side perspective)
3.5.2. CVT provision (from the demand side perspective)
3.5.3. Responsible bodies
3.5.4. Financing
3.5.5. Social dialogue and involvement of social partners
3.5.6. Curricula development
3.5.7. Assessment and certification of the skills
3.5.8. Legislation
3.5.9. Weaknesses, strengths and future government priorities in CVT
3.6. Links between IVET and CVT
3.7. Vocational guidance and counselling
4. Management training
5. VET teachers/trainers/managers and administrators
5.1. Administrators and teachers in the vocational education system
5.1.1. Training for school directors
5.1.2. Certification of directors of vocational education establishments
5.1.3. Reform of teacher salaries
5.2. Pre-service formal training of teachers and trainers
5.2.1.General teacher training
5.2.2. Training for craft and professional subjects teachers
5.3. In-service training for teachers and trainers
6. Research on vocational education
7. International co-operation for VET modernisation
8. Conclusions: challenges and further needs


Selected data on socio-economic situation

Table 1. Gross domestic product (GDP)
Table 2. Selected state budget expenditures
Table 3. Monthly average gross wage per sections

Table 4. Population
Table 5. Natural increase per 1000 population
Table 6. Population of working age
Table 7. Population by gender and age groups
Table 8. Population forecast by age and gender till 2020

Economic activity of population
Table 9. Economically active population by age groups and structure of educational attainment ,
Table 10. Economic activity rate by age groups and educational attainment, November, 1999
Table 11. Economic activity rate by gender and age groups

Table 12. Employed persons by ownership sector
Table 13. Employed by sections of economy,
Table 14. Employment structure by sections of economy
Table 15. Employed by educational attainment and gender,

Table 16. Registered unemployment and unemployment by Labour Force Survey
Table 17. Unemployment rate by age,
Table 18. Registered unemployment rate by educational attainment
Table 19. Job seekers by duration of job-seeking and gender
Table 20: Registered unemployment rate of VET school graduates, % of total, 1995 - 1999

Provision of education
Table 22: Education institutions: number and enrolment (1990 - 1999)
Table 23: Education institutions in 1999/2000
Table 24: Selected educational indicators in 1999/2000
Table 25: Computer facilities at vocational education establishments in 1999/2000 academic year
Table 26: Annual state budget funding for vocational education in 1998, 1999, 2000
Table 27: Drop-outs from secondary education in 1999/2000
Table 28: Proportion of inhabitants in a certain age group who acquire a certain level of education versus the total number of that age group (1997/98 - 1999/2000)
Table 29: Enrolment in education/training between 14 and 25 (1999/2000)
Table 30: Number of students participating in secondary  and in vocational education , 1990-99

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