5.1. PRESENT SITUATION AND
Laws on education, other legislative acts as well as the State budget
are adopted by the Saeima (Parliament). Rules and regulations of national importance are
adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers.
The Ministry of Education and Science develops regulations, laws and
guidelines which are binding on all education institutions in Latvia.
- The Education law of 1991 was meant as a framework law accompanied by a family of laws
regulating individual types of education. The Education law regulates the educational
system as a whole, determines rights and duties of the state, municipal governments,
public organisations, professional corporations and associations, private persons,
educational institutions, parents, pupils, students as well as determining the types and
levels of education and educational institutions.
Legislative acts in the framework of the Education Law are laws,
statutes and template statutes.
Template statutes for each type of educational institutions,
regulations of their accreditation and licensing are developed and approved.
Licensing regulations determine the issuing of licenses in order to
start entrepreneurial activities related to education. Accreditation regulations determine
the order according to which an educational institution is evaluated prior to the awarding
of the right to issue state-recognised educational documents. There are several education
support institutions in Latvia that are also regulated by statutes.
- A Law on craftsmanship was adopted in 1993.
- A Law on Higher educational establishments was adopted in 1995.
- In September 1996 a working group was set up to develop the Law on VET. The working
group included representatives of ministries responsible for VET, representatives of
social partners and representatives from VET institutions.
Currently the Law on VET has been drafted and has been presented for
adoption by the Saeima.
This Law determines:
-the principles of VET organisation, provision and qualification awards
-the tasks, responsibilities and relations between the state,
employers, employees, teachers and students
-the ways and means of acquiring vocational education
-the principles of VET financing.
- In November 1997 the Ministry of Education and Science approved The Classification of
Education. This Classification was developed in order to create the basis of an
information database of educational programmes and to ensure the creation of a unified
statistical database as well as the possibility to compare statistical data with the data
of other countries. The Classification of education includes levels of education,
types of education (general, special, vocational and academic), thematic groups and
information characteristics of the educational system. The Classification codifies each
- In January 1998 Ministry of Education and Science approved the Concept of VET Reform.
This document was developed under the EU Phare "VET Reform" programme in order
to determine the main trends and tasks in VET reform. A long- term plan for implementation
of VET reform is currently under development according to this Concept.
There is a clear need to involve different governmental and public
institutions as well as employers and employees in the development of education in order
to develop vocational education skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary for employers
and to help students to compete in the labour market. There is no legislation in Latvia
defining the tasks and responsibilities of state, employer, employee, teacher and student.
- The Ministry of Education and Science has developed and presented for adoption by the
Saeima draft laws On Education and On General Education in April 1998.
- In May 1998 Ministry of Education and Science should have completed a strategic
programme of education development "Education 1998-2003". This is a complex
programme consisting of 14 sub-programmes. Sub-programmes cover the basic directions of
the development of an education system in all stages and types of education. Corresponding
changes of content, structure and financing of education system will be made by the
implementation of the programme "Education 1998-2003".