About Bologna Process
= creation of the
Bologna process is the
process of creation of the European Higher Education Area.
The process started on June 19, 1999 when 29 European Ministers responsible for
higher education signed the
in which they undertake to create a European Higher Education Area. The creation of the
European Higher Education Area should be completed by 2010.
The main objectives of the Bologna declaration are to
increase the mobility and employability of European higher education
graduates thus ensuring competitiveness of European higher
education on the world scale.
Fully respecting the richness of the European cultural
diversity and thus also the diversity of higher education systems,
Bologna declaration seeks to articulate the European higher education
around two main cycles. Employability of graduates should be ensured
already after the first cycle.
Mobility of graduates around the whole European Higher
Education Area is only possible if recognition of degrees earned is
ensured. This is supposed to be done through increasing
transparency of educational systems and trust among the educational
systems that in turn will be based upon quality assurance of programmes
Issuing of of the Joint European Diploma Supplement to
all graduates and usage of a credit system (ECTS or compatible) are seen
as the main tools for transparency. While the European Credit transfer
System (ECTS) in the past was used only for credit transfer after
spending a study period at another institution, it should now become a
credit accumulation system. Besides credit accumulation in regular
higher education programmes, such system should also provide
possibilities to gain credits within informal and non-formal education,
thus taking on board lifelong learning.
Bologna declaration aims to increase mobility of students
and staff across the European Higher Education Area. Achieving this
goal will also require identification and solution of a number of social
Addition of European dimension to programmes is another
tool for reaching the Bologna goals. Establishing joint programmes and
offering degrees by institutions from different countries seems to
support reaching several goals of Bologna declaration and will
therefore be further developed.
The ministers have decided to meet every two years to
"- reconfirm the objectives,
- analyze the results and
- set guidelines for the next period".
The first ministerial meeting after Bologna took place
in Prague on May 17, 2001
The next ministerial meeting is scheduled on September 18 -19, 2003 in Berlin
(see Bologna-Berlin website).