This is the 2003 version of the Bologna process information page.

Please follow the link to UPDATED Bologna page


Bologna process                                       Updated August 2003

 Bologna process  =  process of creation  of the European Higher Education Area

About Bologna process in short

Key political documents of the Bologna process

Berlin Communiqué of Ministers (19.09.2003)  !

Reports reflecting Bologna  process:

Results of  Bologna - relevant seminars and conferences:

New international legal tools for recognition

See also:
Calendar of events between Prague and Berlin
Council of Europe activities related to the Bologna process
EU activities and  support to the  Bologna process

Bologna-Berlin website














About Bologna process in short

Bologna process  is the process of creation  of the European Higher Education Area.
process started on June 19, 1999 when 29 European Ministers responsible for   higher education  signed  the Bologna declaration in which they undertake to create a European Higher Education Area. The creation of the European Higher Education Area should be completed by 2010.

The main objectives of the Bologna declaration are to increase the mobility and employability of European higher education graduates thus  ensuring competitiveness of European higher education on the world scale.

Fully respecting the richness of the European cultural diversity and thus also the diversity of higher education systems, Bologna declaration seeks to articulate the European higher education around two main cycles. Employability of graduates should be ensured already after the first cycle.

Mobility of graduates around the whole European Higher Education Area is only possible if recognition of degrees earned is ensured. This is supposed to be done through  increasing  transparency of educational systems and trust among the educational systems that in turn will be based upon quality assurance of programmes and institutions.

Issuing of of the Joint European Diploma Supplement to all graduates and usage of a credit system (ECTS or compatible) are seen as the main tools for transparency. While the European Credit transfer System (ECTS) in the past was used only for credit transfer after spending a study period at anothe rinstitution, it should now become a credit accumulation system. Besides credit accumulation in  regular higher education programmes, such system should also provide possibilities to gain credits within informal and non-formal education, thus takinhg on board lifelong learning.

Bologna declaration aims to increase mobility of students and staff accross the European Higher Education Area. Achieving this goal will also require identification and solution of a number of social issues.

Addition of European dimension to programmes is another tool for reaching the Bologna goals. Establishing joint programmes and offereing degrees by institutions from different countries seems to support reaching severeal goals of Bologna declaration and will therefore be further developed.

The ministers have decided to meet every two years  to

"- reconfirm the objectives,
 - analyze the results and
 - set guidelines for the next period"

The first ministerial meeting after Bologna took place in Prague on May 17, 2001
The next ministerial meeting is scheduled on September 18 -19, 2003 in Berlin
(see Bologna-Berlin website).

Report of  the intergovernmental Bologna follow-up group

to Berlin ministerial meeting

rapporteur Prof. Pavel Zgaga, Sep 2003

 Report of  the intergovernmental Bologna follow-up group
to Prague ministerial meeting

rapporteur Pedro Lurtie, May 2001

















Trends and Learning Structures in Higher
Education III (pdf):
In MsWord - 7 files     
<1 2 3 4 5 6 7>
report reflecting Bologna process between the  Ministerial meetings in Prague  in  2001 and Berlin, 2003 by Sybille Reichert and Christian Tauch

Trends and Learning Structures in Higher Education II
report reflecting changes in the first 2 years of the process -
before Prague Ministerial meeting of  2001,   by Guy Haug and Christian Tauch

Trends and Learning Structures in Higher Education I
pre-Bologna report by Guy Haug and Jette Kirstein, 1999















reports and surveys

Qualification structures in European Higher Education
report by S.Adam, March 2003

Tertiary short cycle education in Europe
EURASHE report, 2003

Tuning Educational structures in Europe
Tuning project report by H. Gonzales and R. Wagenaar

Survey on the development of Master degrees and Joint degrees in  Europe
report by C.Tauch and  A.Rauhvargers, Sep 2002

Recognition issues in the Bologna process
ENIC/NARIC working group, May 2001

Student participation in the governance of higher education in Europe
Council of Europe survey, Annika Persson, Jun 2003














     Country reports on implementation
                of Bologna declaration


Austria (1, 2)

Belgium (Flanders)


Czech republic






France  (annex)

















Slovak Republic






United Kingdom




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