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MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS:
THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
AND THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

 

ACE Comment:
The document has not been discussed and approved by the ENIC and NARIC networks or their working groups after  the last revision and it therefore does not necessarily reflect views of the networks.

ACE board considers however that the document contains very useful information for credential evaluators.

 

 

 

Three years have passed since CEPES published the study Mutual Recognition of Qualifications: the Russian Federation and the other European Countries. During this period the whole print run of the study was distributed, not a single copy is currently available. Yet orders for the study continue to come in from different countries. Taking this situation into consideration CEPES decided to place the study on the CEPES website and thereby make it available on-line for anybody who whishes to read it. Here you will find the revised version of the study, which takes into consideration the latest developments in the Russian higher education system.

 

 

 

 MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS:

THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND

THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

 

 

 

Second Edition

 

compiled by Dr. Oleg KOUPTSOV

 

Bucharest, 2000


 

MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS:

THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

AND

THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

Second Edition

compiled by

Dr. Oleg KOUPTSOV

Bucharest, 2000

 

Contents

Part One: GUIDELINES FOR THE RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS FROM THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND OF RUSSIAN QUALIFICATIONS IN THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

2. GUIDELINES FOR THE RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS FROM THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

3. GUIDELINES FOR THE RECOGNITION OF RUSSIAN QUALIFICATIONS IN THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

Part Two: DESCRIPTION OF THE RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

1. INTRODUCTION

2. OVERVIEW OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

4. LANGUAGES OF INSTRUCTION

5. MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

6. THE FINANCING OF HIGHER EDUCATION

7. QUALITY CONTROL

8. FORMS OF EDUCATION

9. THE MARKING SYSTEM

10. GENERAL EDUCATION

11. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

12. HIGHER EDUCATION

13. CHANGES IN THE CONTENT OF EDUCATION AND SPECIALITIES

14. DOCTORAL PROGRAMMES

15. RECOGNITION OF CREDENTIALS

16. LIST OF REGULATIONS

ANNEXES


 

 

FOREWORD

Part One. GUIDELINES FOR THE RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS FROM THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND OF RUSSIAN QUALIFICATIONS IN THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

 

 

 

FOREWORD

The changes taking place in the Russian Federation, in its transition period, have affected all segments of society, including education. The Law on Education, adopted in 1991, a result of the reform process that is under way in the Russian Federation, has introduced multiple changes that are in the process of being implemented. The main principles of this reform process are diversification and decentralization of education, both of which have brought about the establishment of new education institutions, including private ones, changes in curricula, and the introduction of new degree levels.

Representatives of the Russian Federation have, on numerous occasions and by means of CEPES surveys and inventories, expressed their dissatisfaction with the level given to Russian qualifications in certain European countries. Russians have generally felt that their qualifications were undervalued as a result of inadequate knowledge and lack of appropriate information on the contents and scope of education offered in the Russian Federation. The Russian Federation, on several occasions, approached UNESCO and CEPES for co-operation activities in the field of higher education.

On the other hand, the existing differences between systems of education, admission procedures, duration of secondary education, contents, curricula, and degrees in higher education have often created problems for credential evaluators and admission officers in determining the appropriate levels of recognition of Russian qualifications and access levels in higher education institutions. Thus mobility and international academic as well as professional co-operation were hampered. Accurate and updated knowledge of the Russian educational system was clearly needed.

For these reasons, a proposal was made in the framework of the ENIC network to establish a Working Group on the mutual recognition of qualifications delivered in the Russian Federation and in the other European countries. The objectives of the Working Group were to propose recommendations (guidelines) for the recognition of Russian qualifications in the other European countries and the recognition of qualifications earned in the other European countries in the Russian Federation, thus facilitating the mobility of students and persons having professional qualifications as well as academic and professional co-operation between the Russian Federation and the other European countries. To facilitate the assessment of Russian qualifications, it was considered useful to produce a description of the Russian educational system.

The Working Group was established (Annex I), approved by the ENIC meeting in Ljubljana (June 1995), with the UNESCO Office in Bucharest (CEPES) assuring its Secretariat. Ms. Stamenka Uvalic-Trumbic, Programme Specialist, co-ordinated the activities of the Working Group in her capacity as Co-secretary of the Council of Europe/UNESCO ENIC network. The Working Group met three times: in the Hague, the Netherlands, 22-23 November 1995; in Moscow, the Russian Federation, 18-22 May 1996; and in Jerusalem, Israel, 7-10 October 1996. The Working Group analyzed problems encountered in the process of the recognition of qualifications between the Russian Federation and the other European countries based on replies to a questionnaire circulated to members of the ENIC network; elaborated guidelines on the recognition of qualifications from the other European countries in the Russian Federation and of Russian qualifications in the other European countries; and produced a description of the Russian educational system.

It is necessary to underline that this particular Working Group demonstrated the richness and the diversity of European co-operation from a geographical, cultural, and educational point of view. The divergent views, that were expressed at the beginning, gradually evolved into the consensus reached in regard to the guidelines during the last meeting in Jerusalem. The members of the Working Group were satisfied with the results achieved, as valuable tools for their work in the field of recognition. Taking into account the practical importance of this outcome, as a contribution to promoting recognition practices in Europe, they proposed to continue this kind of work for the other CIS countries (former republics of the Soviet Union).

This publication consists of two parts: Guidelines for the Recognition of Qualifications from the other European Countries in the Russian Federation and of Russian Qualifications in the other European Countries (Part One) and the Description of the Russian Educational System (Part Two). The Guidelines, as proposed by the Working Group, will be submitted to the ENIC annual Meeting in Helsinki, Finland, from 8-11 June 1997, for final approval and further distribution and implementation.

The preparation of the Description began with the first draft written by Mr. Jindra Divis and Dr. GŁnter Reuhl using the Model Outline developed by the NAFSA/EAIE for the description of foreign educational systems. Each draft description was discussed at the meetings of the Working Group and, after the comments and remarks made by the participants had been taken into account, was revised on the basis of information provided by Dr. Yuri Akimov and Prof. Valery Galaktionov. The revision of all the draft descriptions and the final editing were undertaken by Dr. Oleg Kouptsov. In order to help readers orient themselves in the Description, key words are presented in bold. The Description can thus serve as a kind of directory of the Russian system of education.

It is hoped that the Guidelines and the Description will assist credential evaluators and admission officers in Europe and elsewhere and facilitate their task. Both will also be helpful for policy- and decision-makers, for educational administrators, for university professors and students, and for others who must deal with recognition matters.

CEPES would like to thank all the members of the Working Group for their contribution, expertise, and assistance in the formulation of the Guidelines and the revision of the Description. Special acknowledgements are due to the President of the Working Group, Mr. Jindra Divis, and to NUFFIC for hosting the first meeting; to Dr. Yuri Akimov, Prof. Valery Galaktionov, and to the State Committee for Higher Education of the Russian Federation that hosted the second meeting and provided CEPES with specimen copies of Russian credentials; and to Nira Gur-Arieh, who, in addition to being a very competent expert, was declared a very special hostess, and to the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sport of Israel that hosted the third meeting in Jerusalem. Gratitude is also owed to the Council of Europe, particularly to Mr. Sjur Bergan, whose constructive co-operation represented a valuable asset to this Working Group.

I would also like to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Leland C. Barrows (CEPES) for his linguistic editing and to Ms. Viorica Popa (CEPES) for her skills in the art of text layout.

Lesley WILSON

Director

 

Part One: GUIDELINES FOR THE RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS FROM THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND OF RUSSIAN QUALIFICATIONS IN THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

The guidelines put forward both for the recognition of foreign qualifications in the Russian Federation and of Russian qualifications in the other European countries are based on the idea that an educational qualification giving access to educational programmes of a certain level in the home country should also give access to educational programmes of a comparable level in the host country.

In addition, the guidelines take into account the concept of "recognition unless substantial differences can be demonstrated" in conformity with the Joint Council of Europe/UNESCO Draft Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications Concerning Higher Education in the Europe Region, to be adopted in 1997. In case of such substantial differences, the solution should be sought on the basis of bilateral agreements or on an individual basis.

The degrees awarded in the Russian Federation during the previous educational system (before 1991) in some disciplines, such as history, law, economics, philosophy, and social sciences may be analyzed in order to determine whether or not recognition is justified.

 

2. GUIDELINES FOR THE RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS FROM THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

2.1. Doctoral Degrees

For countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees, the first doctoral degree should in general be considered for recognition at the level of the Kandidat Nauk degree.

For countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees, the second degree should be considered for recognition at the level of the Doktor Nauk degree.

For countries with a one-tier system of doctoral degrees, this doctoral degree should be considered for recognition at the level of the Kandidat Nauk degree. A holder could apply, in exceptional cases, on an individual basis, for recognition of this degree at the level of the Doktor Nauk degree.

2.2. Access to Doctoral Studies

The holders of a degree giving access1 to doctoral study programmes in the home country should be considered for access to the aspirantura with the same admission requirements that have to be fulfilled by the holders of the Diplom-Specialist and of the Magistr degrees.

2.3. University Level Degrees

For countries with a two-tier system of university degrees, the first university degree should be considered for recognition at the level of the Bakalavr degree.

For countries with a two-tier system of university degrees, the second university degree should be considered for recognition at the level of the Magistr or of the Diplom-Specialist degrees.

For countries with a one-tier system of university degrees, the university degree should be considered for recognition at the level of the Diplom-Specialist or of the Magistr degrees.

2.4. Access to Higher Education

Certificates giving access to higher education in the home country should be considered for access in the Russian Federation on the same terms as for citizens of the Russian Federation.

The Russian evaluation authorities should endeavour to get the relevant regulations amended to enable holders of secondary school leaving certificates granting admission in the home country to be accepted on an individual basis for admission to Russian higher education institutions without entrance examinations or to be considered for exemption from some subjects in those examinations.

 

3. GUIDELINES FOR THE RECOGNITION OF RUSSIAN QUALIFICATIONS IN THE OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

3.1. Doctoral Degrees

In countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree.

In countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this degree.

In countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees, the degree of Doktor Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of the second doctoral degree.

In countries in which only one doctoral degree exists, the degree of Doktor Nauk should be considered for recognition at the level of this degree.

3.2. Access to Doctoral Studies

The holders of the degrees of Diplom-Specialist and Magistr should be considered for access to doctoral studies in the host country with the same specific requirements that have to be fulfilled by the national diploma holders of the host country.

3.3. University Level Degrees

In countries with a two-tier system of university degrees, the degree of Bakalavr should be considered for recognition at the level of the first degree.

In countries with only one university degree, the degree of Bakalavr should be considered for recognition on an individual basis.

In countries with a two-tier system of university degrees, the degree of Diplom-Specialist should be considered for recognition at the level of the second or Master's degree.

In countries with only one university degree, the degree of Diplom-Specialist should be considered for recognition at the level of this university degree.

In countries with a two-tier system of university degrees, the Magistr degree should be considered for recognition at the level of the second or Master's degree.

In countries with only one university degree, the Magistr degree should be considered for recognition at the level of this university degree.

3.4. Access to Higher Education

Certificates giving access to higher education institutions in the Russian Federation should be considered in general for access in the host country, unless substantial differences can be demonstrated between the study programmes leading to the respective diplomas or between additional requirements concerned with access to higher education institutions. In evaluating these differences in qualifications, two years or more of duration in the programme(s) leading to access to higher education institutions may generally be considered as a substantial difference.2 Even then, on an individual basis, this qualification may be considered for access.

art Two: DESCRIPTION OF THE RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

1. INTRODUCTION

In the Russian Federation, there are 180,000 educational establishments of all types and categories. About 35 million people or 23 percent of the total population of the country are annually involved in one type of education or another. More than 6 million people are employed in the sphere of education.

The system of education in Russia evolved for centuries under the influence of Christianity, and since the end of the Seventeenth Century, under the influence of the Enlightenment. In the Twentieth Century, when general and professional education came more than ever to be considered as a factor of social and economic change and as an inherent individual right, illiteracy was eliminated, access to higher education was extended, and an educational system for adults was created. Many persons, however, came to feel that the educational system, that had been built up by the beginning of the 1980's, was not sufficiently flexible and not entirely capable of meeting the demands of individuals.

The socio-political changes that have been taking place in Russia and the transition to a market economy have led to a need to reform the education system. The Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993 and the federal law On Education of 1992 and its 1996 revisions strengthened the right of citizens to education, stimulated the democratization of life in educational institutions, extended academic freedom and institutional autonomy, and promoted the humanization of education. The former centralized and unified system was replaced by a system which, to a fuller extent, takes into account the interests of students and teachers, of the academic community, and of employers. The non-state education sector, including educational establishments founded by both individuals and by non-state organizations, has been developing rapidly. The Federal Programme for the Development of Education, aimed at the encouragement of innovations in all components of the education system, has been designed for the support of educational reforms.

In recent years, the system of education of the Russian Federation has been undergoing drastic changes in the framework of the comprehensive transformation of the country as a whole. The main changes have been proceeding along the following lines:

diversification: emergence of new types of educational institutions, introduction of a multi-level higher education system (Bakalavr and Magistr degrees in addition to the traditional Diplom-Specialist degree), and profound changes in curricula;

democratization: expansion of academic freedom and institutional autonomy, an increase in the number of public and buffer organizations;

quality of education: strengthening of a mechanism for evaluation and quality control;

content of education: in-depth changes in many disciplines, especially in political science, history, economics, law, and others (see Chapter 13).

 

2. OVERVIEW OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

The system of education in the Russian Federation comprises:

successive educational programmes and the State educational standard;

educational institutions in which educational programmes and the State educational standard are implemented;

administrative and other bodies and organizations which govern the educational system.

In the Russian Federation, all educational programmes are of two types (cf., Diagram 1):

 

 

 

 

 

Diagram 1. Scheme of the Education System of the Russian Federation.


 

general education;

professional education.

General education is aimed at the intellectual, moral, emotional, and physical development of the individual; at shaping his or her general cultural level; at developing his or her ability to adapt himself or herself to life in society, and at the setting of the foundations which will enable individuals to make a conscious choice of a professional education programme and to cope with it.

General education comprises:

pre-school education;

primary general education;

basic general education;

secondary (complete) general education.

Professional education is aimed at the continued development of an individual in the process of which he or she acquires a professional qualification and at the preparation of graduates to exercise a profession. Since in the Russian Federation all programmes, except general education programmes, lead to diplomas or to diplomas and degrees as well as to professional qualifications and give the right to exercise professions, they are called professional education programmes. Thus professional education covers the following:

  • vocational education (nachalnoe professionalnoe obrazovanie);
  • non-university level higher education (srednee professionalnoe obrazovanie);
  • university level higher education (vysshee professionalnoe obrazovanie);
  • postgraduate education including doctoral study programmes (poslevuzovskoe professionalnoe obrazovanie).

 

3. STATE POLICY IN REGARD TO EDUCATION

State policy in regard to education is based on the following principles:

the humanistic nature of education, the priority of human values, of human life and health, the free development of individuals; the fostering of civic duties, industry, and respect for human rights; care for the environment, and a sense of responsibility in regard to society and family;

the unity of the national cultural and educational dimensions; protection and development, by the educational system, of both national cultures and regional cultural traditions in the Russian Federation as a multinational State;

the availability of education for everybody, the adaptability of the educational system to the levels of development and training of students;

the secular nature of education in the State and municipal educational establishments;

freedom and pluralism in education;

democracy and a combination of State and public components in educational administration;

the autonomy of educational establishments.

The State guarantees its citizens the possibility to acquire formal education within its territory irrespective of race, nationality, language, sex, age, health, wealth, social and official status, social origin, place of residence, religion, loyalty, party affiliation, and previous convictions.

The citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to free primary education, basic and secondary general education, and to vocational education; and on a competitive basis, to free non-university and university level higher educational and to postgraduate education in State and municipal educational establishments (one course programme at each level).

The State creates special conditions for disabled citizens enabling them to receive education, to correct the abnormalities of their development, and to become socially adapted. The State also renders assistance in providing education to persons who demonstrate outstanding abilities, including special State grants as well as fellowships for study abroad.

 

4. LANGUAGES OF INSTRUCTION

The principal language of instruction is Russian. The study of Russian as the state language of the Russian Federation in all State-accredited educational establishments, except pre-school institutions, is regulated according to the State educational standard.

The citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to receive their basic general education in their native languages as well as to choose their languages of instruction within the range of possibilities offered by the educational system. The language (languages) in which education and training are conducted are selected by the founder(s) and/or by the statutes of given educational establishments.

 

5. MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

Through August 1996, there were two federal (state) bodies that exercised management and administration over the educational system in the country: the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation and the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Higher Education.

The Ministry of Education was in charge of the elaboration and implementation of state policy in the field of pre-school, general, and vocational education as well as of complementary education at the corresponding levels. The State Committee for Higher Education was responsible for the elaboration and implementation of state policy in the field of post-secondary education: non-university and university level higher education, doctoral studies, as well as of complementary education at the corresponding levels.

In August 1996, these two federal bodies were merged into one ministry with combined functions called the Ministry for General and Professional Education of the Russian Federation. This study will refer mainly to this combined Ministry.

The following main functions come under the terms of reference of the federal management and administrative bodies:

the establishment of the procedures for the setting up, reorganization, and dissolution of educational establishments;

the setting up, reorganization, and dissolution of educational establishments under federal subordination;

the elaboration of the procedures for different forms of quality control (licensing, attestation, and state accreditation of educational institutions) and their execution;

the identification of the federal components of the State educational standard;

recognition matters and the nostrification of diplomas obtained abroad;

the elaboration of the attestation (evaluation) procedures for the teaching and administrative staffs of educational institutions and the setting of requirements for their qualifications;

the design of the list of professions and specialities covered by professional education;

the direct funding of educational establishments set up under their authority;

the working out of the state standards and norms for the financing educational institutions and for their material and technical provision as well as for the provision of the teaching-learning process;

control over the execution of legislation in regard to education, over the State educational standard, as well as over budgeting and financing.

In addition to the Ministry for General and Professional Education, other bodies also active are the federal ministerial bodies for the management and administration of education (those set up in federal ministries), the state managerial bodies for education in the constituent parts (republics, territories, regions, etc.) of the Russian Federation (subjects of the Russian Federation), and the local (municipal) administrative bodies. All of these bodies have administrative responsibilities for the educational establishments which they set up.

In the state higher education institutions, routine activities are supervised by Academic Councils that are headed by rectors. The terms of office of an Academic Council is five years. In the non-state educational establishments, supervision is the responsibility of their founders or of a trusteeship council (committee) appointed by the founders.

The direct administration of a higher education institution is the responsibility of the rector. The statute of the institution defines the demarcation between the functions of the Academic Council and of the rector of the institution.

Depending upon the structure of a given institution, Academic Councils may be set up in the faculties. The members are elected from among the academic staff. The terms of reference of Academic Councils are defined in the statutes of the institutions in question. Each faculty is headed by a dean who is elected by the Academic Council of the institution. Faculties are normally composed of chairs that are administered by their heads.

 

6. THE FINANCING OF HIGHER EDUCATION

The main sources of funding of the state educational establishments are the federal and local budgets. Non-state educational establishments are entitled to funding from these sources after they have received state accreditation.

State educational establishments have the right to use other sources of funding including the following:

income obtained for the rendering of additional educational services (additional educational programmes, special courses, in-depth course study, etc.) beyond the framework of relevant educational programmes and of the State educational standard;

fees charged to students (in educational establishments permitted to enroll a certain number of students who must pay for their education) including foreign students;

income derived from business activities (the leasing of fixed assets and property, the selling and buying goods and equipment, the rendering of intermediary services, etc.).

Educational establishments are financed by their founders. For example, the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry finances medical education institutions. The former Ministry of Education funded 90 pedagogical universities, 88 colleges, and 2,270 vocational education institutions. The former State Committee for Higher Education financed 240 universities, academies, and institutes as well as 313 colleges.

The level of financing of educational establishments is carried out on the basis of state and local norms (standards), as determined by the expense per student for each type and category of educational establishment. Federal funding norms are adopted annually by a federal law along with the adoption of the federal budget for the coming year. The norms regarding the financing of non-state educational establishments cannot be lower than those for state educational establishments.

 

7. QUALITY CONTROL

As a result of the changes that occurred in the Russian Federation after 1990, and in order to ensure quality and efficiency, a new national mechanism for quality control and assessment was introduced. This mechanism includes:

the state educational standard;

licensing;

state accreditation;

state final attestation.

7.1. The State Educational Standard

The State educational standard is a set of nationally recognized requirements laid down by the State which determines a mandatory minimum for the contents of educational programmes, the maximum work loads assigned to students, as well as general course loads and requirements to be met by graduates. The State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education was developed by teaching and methodological associations that brought together higher education institutions in relevant fields of study on the basis of a competition organized by the State Committee for Higher Education and approved by Decree No. 940 of 12 August 1994 of the Government of the Russian Federation.

It covers the following:

the structure of higher education and state documents certifying graduation from a higher education institution;

a list of fields of study (specialities);

the state requirements for mandatory minima of the contents of educational programmes (basic educational programmes) and of knowledge and skills to be met by graduates;

the state requirements for the general course load of an educational programme and for the maximum work load assigned to students;

the state control mechanism for the implementation of the State educational standard for higher professional education.

The mandatory minimum for the content of an educational programme (basic educational programme) constitutes the so-called federal component of the educational programme. It can be complemented by the regional component which reflects national and regional requirements in regard to the content of education. Each higher education establishment develops its own educational programmes which must include the federal component and may also contain the regional component and components designed by the particular higher education institution.

7.2. Licensing

Licensing is a procedure whereby an educational institution is granted the right to carry out educational programmes in relevant fields of study (specialities) and at corresponding levels of education. It consists of the recognition of expertise, the taking of decisions, and the issuing of a duly worded authorization, i.e., a license.

Licensing is based on the results of an evaluation carried out by expert commissions that are composed of representatives of educational authorities (federal and local), educational institutions, and the public. The aim of the evaluation is to determine whether or not conditions for the implementation of educational programmes at a given educational establishment correspond to state and local requirements with regard to construction norms and rules, sanitary and hygienic standards, possibilities for health care for students and academic staff, the equipping of the premises and the teaching and learning processes with the proper infrastructure, the staffing of the institution, and the educational qualifications of the academic staff. The content, organization, and methodologies of the teaching and learning processes are not included in this evaluation. The license is issued by the state education authorities or, on their behalf, by the local (municipal) education authorities on the basis of the conclusions of the expert commission. This licensing procedure has no equivalent in the western European countries but is somewhat comparable to state licensing procedures in the United States of America.

Even though licensing grants the right to engage in educational activities, it does not confer the right to award educational certificates of the state format certifying graduation from an educational institution. In order to earn this right, an educational institution must be accorded state accreditation.

7.3. State Accreditation

State accreditation is the formal recognition of the status of an educational establishment by the State on the basis of solid evidence that its activities conform to nationally established requirements. The procedure results in the granting to the educational institution concerned the right to award nationally recognized certificates of the state format certifying the successful completion of an educational programme, to use a State seal of the Russian Federation, and to be included in the financing scheme of the State budget. State accreditation is applicable both to state educational establishments and to private institutions. For higher education institutions, State accreditation is regulated by a decree of the State Committee for Higher Education.

Two main questions are considered during the accreditation process:

recognition of the type of educational institution, which is determined by the level of education (general education, vocational education, non-university or university level higher education) which it claims to offer;

recognition of the kind of educational institution (university, academy, institute, college, tekhnikum, uchilishche) to which a particular institution claims to be accredited.

Recognition of the type of educational institution is granted on the basis of the results of an analysis and evaluation of the following:

the correspondence of the content of education (curricula and syllabi) to the State educational standard;

the information base of the educational and research process (modern sources of information on different types of available support - printed or electronic - which correspond to the content of educational programmes as well as means of information transmission, storage, and use);

the correspondence of the real knowledge and skills of graduates to the State educational standard (minimum requirements in regard to the level of knowledge and skills of graduates).

The recognition of the kind of educational institution is carried out on the basis of the study of the characteristics of the latter according to the typology established for educational institutions, which include:

the list of specialities and the full set of educational programmes offered by the educational establishment;

the possibilities for graduates to continue their studies at advanced levels (Magistr, doctoral, and postgraduate studies);

the nature and volume of the research conducted (fundamental, applied, exploratory) and the existence of a scientific school;

the textbooks, monographs, and instructional materials prepared by the academic staff of the institution and the provision of the educational process with them;

the composition of the research and teaching staff;

the provision of the educational programmes with the necessary educational and laboratory facilities and equipment;

the provision of graduates with employment opportunities and of research projects with implementation opportunities;

the equipping of the institution with student residence halls, dining facilities, social and medical services, and sport and entertainment facilities;

the presence of international co-operation activities;

the activities carried out by the institution in its capacity as a centre of culture and education.

The accreditation procedure includes both a self-evaluation and a peer review. An educational institution wishing to be granted State accreditation should begin with the self-evaluation. The self-evaluation is carried out on the basis of the unified requirements and methodology developed by the Ministry for General and Professional Education. The next step is for the education institution to submit an application, accompanied by the self-evaluation report, for the State accreditation.

Upon receiving the application, an expert group for peer review is constituted. It consists of experts from educational establishments, the academic community, research institutions, industry, etc. The expert group studies the self-evaluation report and makes an on-the-spot evaluation of the quality of the educational institution, in general, and of each of its educational programmes, in particular. By means of expert criticism and appraisal, an analysis is made of whether or not the eligible requirements for accreditation mentioned above have been met. The outcomes of the expert group are reflected in a report (conclusion) which serves as the basis for taking a decision in regard to State accreditation.

State accreditation of non-university level higher education establishments is conducted by the state managerial bodies of the constituent parts of the Russian Federation (subjects of the Russian Federation) in charge of education on the territory of which these institutions are located, with the participation of the ministries concerned.

The State accreditation of university level higher education institutions is conducted by the Ministry for General and Professional Education. The Ministry is also responsible for the elaboration of the unified methodology of the State accreditation and for the overall control of the accreditation process in the country. With this responsibility in view, a special unit for accreditation matters was set up. The Ministry for General and Professional Education aggregates the data on state accreditation, using special computer software for this purpose.

The final decision in regard to State accreditation for given institutions is taken by the state managerial body which carries out the accreditation procedure. For university level higher education institutions, the final decision is taken by the Ministry for General and Professional Education. In the case of a positive decision, the Certificate of State Accreditation is granted. This certificate establishes the status of the educational establishment (its type and kind), the list of its accredited specialities and educational programmes, and their levels (non-university, university, postgraduate), the degrees and qualifications to be awarded, and the period of validity of the certificate.

The procedure for the State accreditation of educational establishments in the country was introduced in 1992 by the Law On Education. As the application of the accreditation procedure for the whole education system in the country requires a great deal of time and effort, it has been decided to consider that all the state and municipal educational establishments are accredited.

7.4. The State Final Attestation

The State final attestation is a special procedure aimed at the assessment of the knowledge and skills of graduates and of the correspondence of the latter to the State educational standard. The procedure is applied to those educational institutions that have successfully undergone State accreditation. In the case of higher education institutions, it culminates in the award of a diploma of the state format and of a qualification. The attestation procedures are regulated by the decree of 25 May 1994 of the State Committee for Higher Education on the State Final Attestation of Graduates of Higher Education Institutions in the Russian Federation.

The State final attestation of graduates consists of one or of several evaluation procedures:

the final examination in an individual discipline;

the final interdisciplinary examination in the speciality;

the defense of a qualifying paper or project.

The defense of a qualifying paper or of a project is a mandatory component of the State final attestation. In addition to the defense, the attestation procedure usually includes a final examination (in an individual discipline or in an interdisciplinary one). The concrete list of evaluation procedures, programmes of final examinations, procedures and terms for the preparation of qualifying papers or projects, and criteria for their assessment are approved by the Academic Council of the institution (faculty) concerned.

The final examination in an individual discipline reveals the knowledge and skills of graduates as set against the curriculum and covers the minimum content of the given discipline established by the particular State educational standard. The final interdisciplinary examination in the speciality, along with the requirements for the content of individual disciplines, reflect the general requirements for graduates as set up by the State educational standard in the given field of study (speciality). Qualifying papers or projects are called diploma papers and diploma projects respectively. Their topics are set by the higher education institution concerned. Students have the right to select topics from the list provided or to propose their own topics along with a plan of development for a given topic. For the preparation of diploma papers or projects, a supervisor and consultants (if necessary) are appointed for each student. Before the defense can take place, all qualifying papers and projects must be reviewed by experts in the respective subjects.

The State final attestation takes place before State Attestation Commissions set up by the rector of the higher education institution concerned. The members of State Attestation Commissions are experienced professors from the given higher education institution and from other institutions, researchers from research institutions, and experts from firms, enterprises, and other such institutions. The chairperson is invited from outside the institution and is approved by the administrative body in charge of the given institution.

 

8. FORMS OF EDUCATION

There are different forms of education: full-time, part-time (evening and correspondence course programmes), and so-called externat (a form of education that enables individuals to study independently and to take examinations). The Government of the Russian Federation establishes a list of specialities for which part-time study and externat are forbidden. The minimum requirements as to the content of education and to the knowledge and skills of graduates, set up by the State educational standard, do not depend on the form of education, and for part-time education and externat, they are the same as for full-time studies.

The number of part-time students constitutes about one third of the total number of students. Part-time students devote the majority of their time to independent studies. In order to compensate in part-time studies for the decrease in contact time, specific education technologies are used: special instructional materials and aids, forms of distance education, modern communication and information technologies, and individual and collective consultations. The number of part-time students studying in a given group is smaller than that of full-time students.

 

9. THE MARKING SYSTEM

The marking system in Russia is unified for all levels of education:

general education  higher education

5 excellent (otlichno)

4 good (khorosho)

3 satisfactory (udovletvoritelno)

2 unsatisfactory (neudovletvoritelno)

- credit (zachet) and non-credit.

The lowest passing grade is 3 (for general education) or satisfactory and credit (for higher education). Students are only permitted to enroll in the next year of study and to be awarded a diploma if they have passing grades in each subject of the curriculum.

 

10. GENERAL EDUCATION

General education comprises three stages corresponding to the levels of educational programmes:

primary general education (as a rule, the standard duration is four years);

basic general education (the standard duration is five years);

secondary (complete) general education (the standard duration is two to three years).

General education programmes now comprise eleven years of studies, while before 1985, they lasted ten years. The extension of total duration occurred at the expense of an earlier school enrollment at the age of 6 (7, before 1985). So students normally finish secondary (complete) general education at the age of 17. There are also twelve-year schools for part-time education and education in the arts.

At present, the system of general education includes 66,909 educational establishments in which 20,825,000 students are enrolled. Some 607 private schools have been established over the last years. The official name of general education schools is the Secondary General School. During the last years, new types of schools called gymnasia and lycei (singular: gymnasium and lyceum), that can be state and private, were set up. The duration of studies in gymnasia and lycei can exceed that of Secondary General Schools, and their educational programmes can be more advanced.

General education curricula normally stipulate thirty-four weeks of study per year and, as a rule, twenty-seven to thirty-eight hours of study per week. The academic year starts on 1 September and runs through the beginning of June. School examinations are scheduled in June. For certain categories of students, the stipulated period of study can be changed according to the specific State educational standard.

A Basic Curriculum for General Education (Table 1) has been developed which lays down the State requirements as to the minimum content of education and the workload of students. The Basic Curriculum designates the compulsory fields of study (Humanities with a special emphasis on Russian Language, Literature, Social Sciences, and Physical Education; Natural Sciences with priority given to Mathematics; and Technology). The Social Sciences can include such subjects as Foreign Languages, Russian History, World History, Economic and Social Geography, Law, Political Science, Economics, etc. The Natural Sciences can cover Biology, Physics, Astronomy, Chemistry, Ecology, etc. Technology normally includes Drawing and a number of disciplines for the imparting of certain professional skills: basic skills of general utility for pupils (Home Economics, Sewing, Cooking, Metal Work, Carpentry, etc.) and, in upper grades, basic skills for the exercise of certain professions.

In addition to these required fields of study, the Basic Curriculum provides for disciplines which could be added because of being specific to the particular region in which the school is located as well as optional disciplines in accordance with the interests of pupils.

In practice, each school designs its own curriculum, basing it upon the Basic Curriculum.

Table 1. Basic Curriculum for General Education in the Russian Federation.

 

Russia has well-developed networks of schools offering advanced programmes which are based on the Basic Curriculum and can be offered in a number of ways:

  • through schools offering advanced programmes in selected disciplines such as foreign languages, mathematics, physics, etc.;
  • through schools with developed out-of-school activities giving a profound mastery of fine arts, philosophy, economics, sports, and other fields;
  • through schools in which senior grades work under the auspices (and tutorship) of higher education institutions and use the academic staff and facilities of the latter.

Primary general education and basic general education are compulsory. On the completion of basic general education (a nine-year programme), students take final examinations (the procedure is called the State final attestation) and are awarded, if they pass, the Certificate of Basic General Education (Attestat ob Osnovnom Obshchem Obrazovanii)(Annex 2, Fig.1). As a result of the State final attestation, students may or may not be encouraged to continue their education. The Certificate entitles its holder to be admitted either to secondary (complete) general education or to vocational education, as well as to non-university level higher education.

The Certificate of Secondary (Complete) General Education (Attestat o Srednem (Polnom) Obshchem Obrazovanii; before 1993, the Attestat o Srednem Obrazovanii - Certificate of Secondary Education) (Annex 2, Fig. 2 and 3) is awarded after the completion of an eleven-year school programme and the successful passing of the State final attestation (final examinations). The number of disciplines subject to final examinations should not be fewer than five: two federal compulsory written examinations (composition and mathematics) and no less than three optional examinations at the choice of the student. In addition to the results of the final examinations, school leaving certificates include a supplement (Annex 2, Fig. 4) listing the grades obtained by students in all the subjects taught during the whole period of education. The old version of the certificate (Attestat o Srednem Obrazovanii) has no supplement, and the grades are listed on the certificate itself. The number of subjects may vary from seventeen to twenty. Final and annual examinations are two-thirds written and one-third oral; examinations taken during the learning process are in the reversed proportion.

The school leaving certificate (Certificate of Secondary (Complete) General Education) entitles its holder to pursue professional education: either vocational education, or both non-university and university level higher education.

In the last few years, numerous private schools have been established. The authorization to grant nationally recognized certificates (certificates of the State format) is linked to success in the State accreditation procedures. Certificates awarded by non-accredited institutions (of non-State format) do not grant the right to be admitted to higher education institutions.

11. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

Vocational education (nachalnoe professionalnoe obrazovanie) is the initial stage of professional education. It is aimed at the training of skilled workers, usually on the basis of basic general education. Vocational training for certain occupations may be based on secondary (complete) general education. Educational programmes for persons wishing to take up vocational education after basic general education are different from those offered to persons who have finished secondary (complete) general education.

A total of 3,911 educational institutions, some of which are private, with an enrollment of 1,694,000 students offer course programmes in vocational education in the country. Admission to vocational education institutions normally does not require any entrance examinations.

Two kinds of vocational education can be distinguished:

The first kind of vocational education is offered by vocational education institutions called Professional Schools (Professionalnoe Uchilishche). In these institutions, educational programmes are aimed at the acquisition of professional qualifications and mainly cover subjects for professional training. The duration of these educational programmes is:

1 to 2.5 years, following completion of basic general education (nine-year programmes);

1 to 1.5 years, following completion of secondary (complete) general education (eleven-year programmes).

After passing the State final attestation, graduates of Professional Schools are awarded Diplomas (Annex 2, Fig. 5) that give them the right to exercise a profession. Such a Diploma also entitles its holder to pursue non-university level higher education (in case studies are pursued in the same profile, educational programmes can be shortened), however this type of vocational education does not give the right of access to university level higher education.

The second kind of vocational education is offered by vocational education institutions called Professional Lycei (Professionalnye Litsei). In these institutions, educational programmes, in addition to the professional education component, also include a general education component (educational programme of the tenth and eleventh grades). After passing the State final attestation, graduates of a Professional Lyceum are awarded diplomas that not only give them the right to exercise a profession but also indicate that they have received secondary (complete) general education. This diploma gives its holder the right to be admitted to university level higher education institutions (in case studies are pursued in the same profile, university programmes can be shortened).

The duration of studies in a Professional Lyceum is:

at least 3 years, following completion of basic general education (nine-year programmes);

1 to 1.5 year, following completion of secondary (complete) general education (eleven-year programmes).

 

12. HIGHER EDUCATION

There are two kinds of higher education in the Russian Federation:

non-university level higher education (educational programmes not leading to academic degrees);

university level higher education (educational programmes leading to academic degrees).

Despite the different levels of education, these two kinds of higher education have the following common features:

the lists of specialities available through both kinds of higher education are interlinked;

the educational programmes are convergent in particular with regard to the list and the volume of specialized disciplines;

state requirements as to the minimum content of education and to the knowledge and skills of graduates are developed for both kinds of higher education on the basis of secondary (complete) general education;

teaching technologies typical of universities are introduced in non-university level higher education institutions;

12.1. Non-University Level Higher Education

There are 2,576  state and municipal non-university level higher education establishments in the country enrolling over 2,147,000 students. About 130 private institutions offering educational programmes in such fields as law, economics, and management have been established over the last few years.

Educational institutions for non-university level higher education are generally known as Tekhnikums or Uchilishcha. Since 1989, a new type of institution has emerged, namely, the College. Colleges can be independent educational institutions or constituent parts of a university, academy, or institute. They offer educational programmes of non-university level higher education of advanced type as well as two-year programmes leading to the award of the Intermediate Diploma. At present, there are 679 colleges in the country.

The admission procedure for a college is regulated by Decree No. 1 of 16 March 1995 of the State Committee for Higher Education. Admission is competitive, and applicants have to pass admission tests in the form of entrance examinations, interviews, and so forth in order to demonstrate their abilities to pursue educational programmes. The list of admission tests is determined by the educational establishments themselves. In 1995, there were 180 applicants per 100 vacant places. It should be noted that in the Russian Federation applicants are allowed to apply to only one educational establishment at a time.

The main prerequisite for admission is the completion of secondary (complete) general education (grade 11). However, a number of educational establishments offer course programmes following completion of basic general education (grade 9). The number of applicants with basic general education is declining. In 1995, they constituted only one-third of the total number of applicants.

12.1.1. The Duration of Programmes

In a Tekhnikum (Uchilishche):

2 to 3 years after secondary (complete) general education (grade 11);

no less than 3 years after basic general education (grade 9).

In a College:

3.5 to 4 years after secondary (complete) general education (grade 11);

4 to 4.5 years after basic general education (grade 9).

12.1.2. Educational Programmes

As a rule, educational programmes for a Tekhnikum (Uchilishche) cover the humanities, the social and the natural sciences, including economics and mathematics, general professional and specialized disciplines, as well as practical training.

Educational programmes for Colleges, in addition to the educational programmes for Tekhnikums (Uchilishcha), include up to a one-year programme covering a more profound form of theoretical education and professional training, including more in-depth practical training.

For those entering a Tekhnikum (Uchilishche) or a college after basic general education (grade 9), possible educational programmes also include disciplines for secondary (complete) general education.

The curricula stipulate forty-five weeks of study per year. The average time ratio of theoretical education to practical training is 1 to 1. The total workload of a student is fifty-four hours a week, including classwork and independent studies, while the contact workload is thirty-six hours a week. For part-time (evening) education, classwork amounts to sixteen hours per week. In the case of correspondence education, each student must be provided with the opportunity to have 160 contact hours a year.

On the successful completion of studies and the passage of the State final attestation, students are awarded the corresponding diploma (Annex 2, Fig. 6). The Diploma supplement contains the list of subjects taught during the period of studies and the grades earned.

The diplomas of non-university level higher education entitle their holders either to pursue professional activities in accordance with the qualifications stipulated or to be admitted to university level higher education in the same conditions as for holders of school leaving certificates. University level higher education institutions may give credits and offer shortened programmes to graduates of a Tekhnikum (Uchilishche) or a college who continue their education in the same speciality.

12.2. University Level Higher Education

According to the Standard Statute for University Level Higher Education Establishments adopted by the Government of the Russian Federation on 26 June 1993 and based on the Law On Education, higher education in the country is built upon the following typology of establishments:

Universities: higher education institutions the activities of which are aimed at the development of education, science, and culture through the conducting of fundamental and applied research and the offering of training programmes at all levels of higher, postgraduate, and continuing education in a wide range of natural and social sciences and the humanities. A university must be the leading research and methodological centre in the areas of its activity. Universities are now subdivided into the following groups:

Universities for Humanities and Sciences;

Pedagogical Universities (former Pedagogical Institutes);

Medical Universities (former Medical Institutes);

Agricultural Universities (former Agricultural Institutes);

Technical Universities (former Polytechnic and Specialized Institutes);

Academies: higher education institutions the activities of which are aimed at the development of education, science, and culture through the conducting of fundamental and applied research and the offering of training programmes at all levels of higher, postgraduate, and continuing education in a single major area of science, technology, or culture. An academy must be the leading research and methodological centre in its area of activity.;

Institute: independent higher education institutions or divisions of universities or academies which offer educational programmes at all levels of higher, postgraduate, and continuing education in a number of fields of science, technology, and culture and conduct research.

This new typology is replacing the old typology of the former Soviet Union, in which higher education institutions consisted of the following types of establishment:

Universities - typically offering a broad range of disciplines especially in the humanities and the sciences;

Polytechnic Institutes - typically offering a variety of technological disciplines;

Specialized Institutes - typically offering education in only one major discipline, for example, medicine, agriculture, economics, teacher education, etc.

The transformation of the old institutions into new institutional types is still in progress. Former Polytechnic Institutes and Specialized Institutes are still trying to broaden their programmes and are being renamed Universities or Academies.

At present, the system of university level higher education consists of 590 state higher education establishments. They consist of:

91 classical Universities;

156 Pedagogical Institutes including 91 pedagogical universities;

47 Medical Institutions;

59 Agricultural Institutions;

56 Economics Institutions;

48 Fine Arts Institutions;

145 Engineering Institutions;

21 Civil Engineering Institutions;

7 Law Institutions;

12 Physical Culture and Sports Institutions.

The total enrollment in 1999/2000 was 3.7 million students (in 1995, 2.5 million).

Along with the state sector, there is also a sector of municipal higher education establishments run by local and regional authorities as well as a sector of non-state higher education establishments run by private, public, and religious organizations. During the last few years, about 350 non-state higher education institutions, mostly private ones, have been set up and have received the status of licensed by the Ministry for General and Professional Education. This private sector is still expanding. The new private institutions are particularly active in such fields as Law, Management, and Finance. Most of them are small institutions. Only a few of them have their own premises and facilities. The others are using the facilities of neighbouring state establishments of higher education and research.

Students are eligible to be considered for transfer to other higher education institutions provided that the higher education institution concerned agrees to enroll them and that they have been successfully assessed.

As for students enrolled in the non-state sector, they can be transferred to state higher education institutions but only from the accredited non-state higher education institutions. The terms of transfer are determined by the statutes of the higher education establishment to which the transfer is sought. Students of non-accredited non-state higher education institutions wishing to enroll in state higher education institutions must initiate general admission procedures including the passing of entrance examinations. Having succeeded in enrolling in a state higher education institution, they are eligible to be considered for pursuing shortened course programmes taking into account the courses they have taken in the non-accredited non-state higher education institution, assuming that they meet the requirements of the State educational standard for the given speciality.

12.2.1. Admission Requirements

Traditionally, a diploma granting admission to university level higher education institutions may be earned at institutions offering secondary (complete) general education and non-university level higher education.

Admission to higher education establishments is competitive. The selection is based on entrance examinations, school leaving certificates, interviews, etc. The entrance examinations are the major component of the selection procedure. The number and the list of entrance tests are stipulated by the admission regulations of given educational institutions. The subjects of the entrance examinations are set by the individual institutions according to the requirements of the faculties to which admission is sought. Following the decree of the State Committee for Higher Education of 26 April 1993, the subjects and their contents that are selected for entrance examinations should correspond to the subjects and their contents taught in secondary general schools. Higher education institutions, therefore, may choose subjects for the entrance examinations from the following list: History, Social Sciences, Russian Language and Literature, Foreign Languages, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, etc.

University level higher education establishments are entitled to reduce the number of examinations and to change the nature of tests for individuals who have graduated either from institutions of secondary (complete) general education and have been awarded a medal or from non-university level higher education institutions and have been awarded an honours diploma or other awards.

Admission depends on the grades obtained in the examinations and on the number of places available. For candidates with identical examination results, the decision for admission may be based on the school leaving certificate. The number of applications may be several times higher than the capacity of the faculty, depending on the reputation of the institution and on the general interest in the subject. In 1995, only 40 percent of the total number of applicants were enrolled in higher education institutions. In the Russian Federation, a person is permitted to apply only to one educational institution at a time.

After the changes of the early 1990's, higher education institutions have been authorized to allocate a portion of their places to fee-paying students. Since competition for these places is not as high as for the places financed by the state, admission requirements may be lower, and students may be admitted with lower grades.

12.2.2. Course Programme Structure

Since 1992, Russian higher education has had a multi-level structure, and higher education institutions may confer the following degrees and diplomas:

an Intermediate Diploma (at least two years of study);

a Bakalavr Diploma (at least four years of study);

a Specialist Diploma (five to six years of study);

a Magistr Diploma (six years of study).

The term, multi-level, indicates that degrees now may be obtained at three levels instead of at only one level, as in the former Soviet Union. In addition to the traditional Specialist Diploma, an Intermediate Diploma, a Bakalavr Diploma, and a Magistr Diploma were introduced after the changes in the early 1990's and are modeled on the Anglo-Saxon system of Bachelor's and Master's Degrees. The Magistr is based upon and comes after the Bakalavr.

In order to establish the relationship between these qualifications in the future, the Government of the Russian Federation adopted the State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education of 12 August 1994. It designates three levels of studies:

Level 1 comprises the first two years of studies for the Bakalavr or Specialist Diplomas and is concentrated on compulsory fundamental courses in the given speciality. After this period, students may either continue their studies or, if they do not want to do so, leave the institution with an Intermediate Diploma;

Level 2 is the continuation of studies for the Bakalavr degree the duration of which is at least another two years. It leads to the four-year Bakalavr degree;

Level 3 represents an educational level common both to the Magistr Diploma and to the Specialist Diploma.

Magistr degree programmes are based on Bakalavr degree programmes, while Specialist Diploma programmes are not.

The Intermediate Diploma

The first function of the Intermediate Diploma (Diplom o nepolnom vysshem obrazovanii) (Annex 2, Fig. 7 and 8) awarded after at least two years of studies for the Bakalavr or Specialist Diplomas, is to certify that the student has successfully finished the first two years of basic higher education in a particular field of study.

This Diploma is conferred in all fields of study. Courses follow a curriculum that imparts the fundamental contents of the education offered in the appropriate field of study. The Diploma is not a degree; it is only an intermediate qualification. However, the Diploma gives its holder the right to exercise a professional activity in accordance with the level of education it represents. The Diploma is issued at the request of the student. The Diploma supplement lists the results of the normal examinations taken during the first two years of study. The Intermediate Diploma is called upon to facilitate mobility among the different types of higher education institutions.

The Bakalavr Degree

The Bakalavr degree is conferred after at least a four-year course of study. Bakalavr programmes can cover all disciplines except medicine. The function of the Bakalavr degree is to provide a more academically rather than professionally oriented education. The Bakalavr degree is a prerequisite for admission to Magistr studies.

defense of the thesis Bakalavr programmes reflect the State educational standard regarding the state requirements for the compulsory minimum of the content of education for the Bakalavr degree in the appropriate field of study. In the meantime, the State Committee for Higher Education has published for the Bakalavr degree the State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education, Moscow, 1995, that describes the structure, aims, and contents of education. Each Bakalavr programme contains a defined portion of fundamental education with courses taken from the humanities, the social sciences and economics, and the natural sciences. The continuing stages provide basic professional and specialized education as well as field work relating to professional training.

Examinations must be taken and passed at the end of each semester. The State final attestation includes the defense of a thesis prepared over a period of four months and State final examinations. Following a successful attestation, a State Diploma (Annex 2, Fig. 9) is issued attesting conferral of the Bakalavr degree. The supplement to the Diploma (Annex 2, Fig.10 and 11) includes the list of disciplines taught during the period of education, the number of hours, the grades, the practical training, and the results obtained on the final state examinations and in the defense of the thesis or project.

The Specialist Diploma

The traditional qualification of Specialist Diploma (Annex 2, Fig. 12, 13, and 14) has two functions. It opens access to professional practice (e.g., to engineers, teachers, chemists, etc.), and it is also the traditional prerequisite for admission to doctoral studies. The qualification of Specialist Diploma is conferred after studies lasting five to six years. The diploma is awarded in all fields of study (specialities).

Students are required to take and to pass examinations at the end of each semester. The State final attestation for a Specialist Diploma covers the defense of a project or a thesis and State final examinations. The procedure for the State final attestation and for the award of the Diploma as well as the content of the supplement to the Diploma are the same as for the Bakalavr degree.

The Magistr Degree

A Magistr programme is at least a two-year course programme centred more around research activities than the Specialist Diploma. The license to conduct Magistr studies is granted by the Ministry for General and Professional Education only to those higher education institutions that are accredited and possess adequate academic staff and facilities.

The State educational standard defines only general requirements for Magistr educational programmes and not the requirements regarding the content of education. Higher education establishments in Russia interested in introducing Magistr degree programmes are free to make their own decisions regarding the contents of programmes. The recommendations prepared by the teaching and methodological associations of higher education institutions are taken into consideration.

Access to Magistr studies is open to the holders of the Bakalavr degree. For the holders of the Bakalavr degree wishing to pursue a Magistr programme in the same field of study (speciality), the higher education institutions themselves set up admission procedures (examinations, interviews, etc.). Those holders of the Bakalavr degree wishing to pursue the Magistr programme in another field of study (speciality) must pass an additional test which reflects the requirements for the Bakalavr programme in the speciality corresponding to the chosen Magistr programme.

Each Magistr programme consists of two more or less equal components: the course component and the independent research component. Magistr studies are completed by a State final attestation that includes the defense of a dissertation and the passing of State final examinations. The Magistr dissertation is a piece of independent research prepared under the guidance of a supervisor. The procedure for State final attestation and for the award of the Diploma (Annex 2, Fig. 15) as well as the content of the supplement to the Diploma are the same as for the Bakalavr degree.

The university level higher education curriculum stipulates thirty-six weeks of study a year. Depending on the field of study (speciality), the proportions of mandatory and optional courses in a curriculum are around the following: mandatory courses: 80 to 85 percent; optional courses: 15 to 20 percent. The total workload of a student should not exceed fifty-four hours a week including classwork and independent studies. A student's total workload of classwork is, on average, twenty-seven hours a week (for the Magistr programme, fourteen hours a week). For part-time (evening) education, classwork should not be less than ten hours a week. In the case of correspondence education, students are offered the possibility of having no less than 160 hours a year of contact classes. The academic year begins on 1 September and ends at the beginning of June.

University level higher education diplomas (the Bakalavr Diploma, the Specialist Diploma, and the Magistr Diploma) give their holders the right to exercise professional activities in accordance with the qualifications indicated on the diplomas. Specialist and Magistr Diplomas entitle their holders to be admitted to doctoral study programmes.

12.2.3. Medical Sciences

The duration of study in the medical sciences is the following:

five years in dentistry and pharmacy;

six years in medicine;

four years in nursing following completion of vocational education and two-and-a-half years following completion of non-university level higher education.

The medical sciences are the only area in which diplomas of university level higher education do not give the right to their holders to exercise their professions independently. In order to be admitted to the medical professions, the holders of university level higher education diplomas must undertake further in-depth professional training:

a one-year course programme (called the internatura) or

a two- to three-year course programme (called the ordinatura).

Training in the internatura or the ordinatura takes place on the premises of the best hospitals, clinics, and research medical institutes. Graduates from the internatura or ordinatura are awarded certificates that specify their specialization areas and entitle them to exercise their professions independently.

12.2.4. Teacher Training

Teacher training for primary general education is carried out in non-university level higher education institutions. Teachers for basic and secondary (complete) general education levels are trained in university level higher education institutions.

12.2.5. The Academic Staff

In 1999 there were 255,900 academics employed in university level higher education institutions, including 148,300 holders of the Doktor nauk and the Kandidat nauk degrees. The ranking of teaching positions is the following:

Professor (Professor);

Docent (Dotsent);

Senior Teacher (Starshij prepodavatel);

Assistant (Assistent).

All academic positions in university level higher education institutions are filled through competition. The staffing of higher education institutions is the responsibility of the educational establishments themselves. The State authorities are not involved in the appointment procedures as is the case in some western countries.

The staffing procedure for all teaching positions is the same. Vacancies are advertised in newspapers and are open to applicants from all establishments. Applications are evaluated by the heads of chairs in which there are vacancies, and are then submitted to a meeting of the members of the chair. The members may give recommendations to the Academic Council of the institution (or of the faculty, depending on the structure of the institution). Applicants are elected at the Academic Council meeting, and after approval by the rector, they become staff members of the institution.

Appointments are made for a term of five years. Re-election is possible and, in any case, requires a new position advertisement. The requirements for positions are the following:

for the position of professor - normally the academic degree of Doktor nauk; applicants with the lower degree of Kandidat nauk may be admitted in the case of scientific excellence and/or experience in a long career;

for the position of docent - normally the academic degree of Kandidat nauk; in exceptional cases, persons without the academic degree of Kandidat nauk, but with excellent scientific results and/or long careers are also admitted to the position of docent;

for the position of senior teacher - the Specialist or Magistr Diploma and teaching experience of at least five years;

for the position of assistant - the Specialist or Magistr Diploma.

The positions of professor and docent should be distinguished from the academic titles of professor and docent. These academic titles are awarded to holders of the positions of professor or docent respectively for their academic achievements. Such awards are made by the Ministry for General and Professional Education according to a special procedure.

 

13. CHANGES IN THE CONTENT OF EDUCATION AND SPECIALITIES

The reforms of higher education first touched the content of education. The changes were intended to eliminate the one-sided approach in education that existed before the 1990's: the lack of offerings in the humanities in the fields of the natural sciences and engineering, on the one hand, and the insufficient links of education in the humanities and the social and economic sciences with the scientific and technical components of contemporary culture, on the other hand. These changes, when fully completed, are expected to give rise to the training of graduates who will acquire not only high-level professional qualifications but also the ability to analyze in an integral and comprehensive way the complex problems of present-day society and the environment.

At present, two main processes are under way in regard to the content of education: fundamentalization and emphasis on human sciences. The study of the humanities and the socio-economic sciences has been considerably expanded to all specialities in engineering and the natural sciences. Their volume has doubled and now constitutes more than 20 percent of contact hours. The teaching of sociology, political science, and cultural studies has been introduced. The study of philosophy, history, law, market economics, and other disciplines has been freed from ideology and brought nearer to the achievements of science. In the humanities and the socio-economic sciences, training in the exact and the natural sciences and in technology has been strengthened. In particular, the study of the foundations of the natural sciences and of technology as well as of informatics has been introduced.

New specialities have been designed especially in the humanities and the socio-economic sciences. Higher education establishments now offer educational programmes in cultural studies, theology, political science, management, commerce, public relations, accounting, state and municipal management, marketing, and in many other fields. Many of these programmes are based on specialities that existed in earlier times, their content having been revised (for instance, the speciality, Commerce, was developed from the speciality, Merchandising), while the others have been designed anew.

Recent years have witnessed changes in the priorities of specialities. The numbers of students in the fields of economics, management, law, foreign languages, sociology, and psychology are considerably increased, whereas in the fields of engineering and technology, the numbers have declined (in the 1980's, the share of students in the latter fields exceeded 40 percent of the total number of students).

 

14. DOCTORAL PROGRAMMES

The hierarchy of advanced degrees in Russia traditionally includes doctor's degrees of two levels: the Candidate of Sciences (Kandidat Nauk) and the Doctor of Sciences (Doktor Nauk). The Candidate of Sciences degree normally requires at least three years of study beyond graduation from a university level higher education institution and the award of the Specialist or the Magistr diploma. The Doctor of Sciences degree can be earned after a period of further study following the award of the Candidate of Sciences degree. In reality, to earn a Doctor of Sciences degree requires five to fifteen years beyond the award of the Candidate of Sciences degree.

Both university level higher education establishments and research institutions have the right to set up doctoral study programmes. Two national bodies, the Ministry for General and Professional Education of the Russian Federation and the Russian Academy of Sciences are responsible for the general supervision of doctoral studies in higher education establishments and research institutions, respectively. Upon the decision of these two bodies, doctoral study programmes (aspirantura - for the Candidate of Sciences degree and doctorantura - for the Doctor of Sciences degree) can be opened in those higher education establishments and research institutions that possess the required personnel as well as scientific and financial resources. Higher education institutions must be accredited, and research institutions must have a license granting them the right to carry out educational activities.

The two doctoral degrees can be earned in two ways: as a result of studies in the aspirantura and doctorantura or independently.

 

14.1. The Main Route to the Candidate of Sciences Degree

The main route leading to the Candidate of Sciences degree (Kandidat Nauk) is the aspirantura which is aimed at imparting in-depth theoretical, special, and social education and of training scientific and teaching staff through the mastery of means and methods of scientific study so that they may be able to carry out independent research and educational work with great skill. A doctoral student is called an aspirant.

The general prerequisites for admission to aspirantura are completion of a full course of study at a university level higher education institution and award of the Specialist Diploma or of the Magistr degree, proof of creative thinking in practical work or study, and an age limit of up to 35 years for full-time and up to 45 years for part-time aspirants. Institutions set quotas limiting the number of doctoral students to be admitted each year. The quotas are based on the available funds and equipment, the staff necessary for supervision, as well as on the needs of science and the economy for highly qualified personnel in the given field.

Admission to entrance examinations is determined on the basis of a synopsis of the selected subject as presented by each applicant, research and development outcomes also submitted by the applicant, and the results of preliminary discussions of projected research topics with possible supervisors. Applicants take competitive entrance examinations in the subject of specialization, in one foreign language, and in philosophy. Enrollment is based on success in the entrance examinations and evaluation by the prospective supervisor. The registration procedure for candidates who have obtained the right to enroll as aspirants is undertaken by the respective higher education establishment or research institution.

There are both full- and part-time aspirantura studies. The duration of full- and part-time studies must not exceed three and four years respectively.

In order to be awarded the Candidate of Sciences degree, a student must complete, present, and defend a dissertation. Dissertation topics should generally correspond to the scientific areas of the basic projects undertaken by the awarding institution and be approved by its Academic Council for each doctoral student.

A Doctor of Sciences or a professor specializing in the subject area is appointed as a supervisor for each aspirant as soon as he or she joins an aspirantura. The supervisor acts as a tutor to an aspirant, supervises the execution of his or her individual study plan, and bears responsibility for the adequate scientific level of the thesis.

Full-time doctoral students receive stipends paid by the state. The period of studies is included in the general record of scientific work and teaching. Part-time doctoral students also receive a number of encouragements (among other things, fully-paid additional annual holidays).

Doctoral studies programmes are aimed at advancing the theoretical and specialized knowledge of doctoral students enabling them to master their research and professional skills and to broaden their social and cultural outlooks. Programmes include both postgraduate courses and research.

The courses that are to be taken by aspirants consist of lectures and seminars. During postgraduate studies, students must study pedagogy and teaching methods, psychology, economics, information technology, mathematical simulation, and certain other subjects, and pass profile examinations set by the Academic Council for every speciality. In addition, they must take a training course in instructional methods.

In addition to course examinations, aspirants must pass qualifying (Candidate) examinations in the given speciality, in philosophy, and in a foreign language.

Those researchers who, in the course of postgraduate study, have written dissertations, are registered to defend them. A dissertation is expected to be a scholarly work which makes an original and valuable contribution to the field of knowledge concerned and reflects the novelty and significance of the outcomes of this given research. Moreover, the content of the dissertation must demonstrate that its author has an excellent knowledge of the field as well as an aptitude for independent research.

The defense of the dissertation is carried out before a Dissertation Council. Dissertation Councils are organized by the Supreme Certifying Committee (Vysshij Attestatsionnyj Komitet, VAK) of the Russian Federation to accept dissertations in given fields of knowledge in those higher education and research institutions that are acknowledged for their achievements in the respective fields of science. They are standing bodies with a term of office of five years. A Dissertation Council is composed of holders of the Doctor of Sciences and the Candidate of Sciences degrees. The total number of its members should not be less than nine (usually about twenty). A Dissertation Council for the defense of the Candidate dissertation should include no fewer than three Doctors of Sciences.

The public defense of the dissertation is held in the form of a public report and a scientific discussion. Proceeding from the cumulative evaluation of the results of the defense and the judgments of independent experts and official opponents, the Council decides by secret ballot whether or not the dissertation meets the requirements for a Candidate dissertation. If the verdict is positive, the applicant will be granted the degree of Candidate of Sciences and the corresponding diploma (Annex 2, Fig. 16). In order for the decision to be considered valid, at least two-thirds of the members of the Council must participate in the vote. The defense is considered to be a success if no fewer than two-thirds of those present vote for a pass. In case of failure, the defense can be repeated in no less than a year.

Having completed a postgraduate course programmes, students have an advantage when applying for a teaching position at a higher education institution or for a research position at a research institution. The award of the Candidate of Sciences degree leads to a salary increase or to a better paid position at a higher education or a research institution. Possession of the Candidate of Sciences degree confers preference when appointment to a post of associate professor (dotsent) is sought.

14.2. Other Routes Leading to the Candidate of Sciences Degree

Another route leading to the Candidate of Sciences degree is outside the aspirantura system. In this case, an applicant, holder of a Specialist or Magistr diploma with no less than two years of work experience, is attached to a higher education establishment or to a research institution for tutoring in specialized subjects, a foreign language, and in philosophy, the latter varying according to given postgraduate programmes, and for taking the qualifying (Candidate) examinations as well as for preparing a dissertation.

A supervisor (as a rule, a Doctor of Sciences or a Professor) for each applicant is appointed by the institution to which the applicant is attached, and possibilities for using libraries, laboratories, and other facilities are made available. The applicant has to pass qualifying (Candidate) examinations similar to those for aspirants.

Upon the successful completion of dissertations and individual programmes, applicants may defend their dissertations. The requirements for the dissertation, the procedure for its defense, and the subsequent award of the academic degrees are the same as for aspirants.

 

14.3. The Doctor of Sciences Degree

The second and highest academic degree is the degree of Doctor of Sciences (Doktor Nauk). It is awarded in the same broad fields of knowledge as the degree of Candidate of Sciences. In architecture and fine arts, the degrees awarded are the Doctor of Architecture and the Doctor of Fine Arts, respectively. Doctoral dissertations are prepared either on a full-time basis during doctoral studies in doctorantura or independently, outside doctorantura.

In Russia, the doctorantura system was developed in 1987 in order to train highly qualified scientific and academic staff for the most important fields of knowledge, science, and technology. Doctorantura can be organized in leading higher education establishments and research institutions in given fields of science and of knowledge having advanced research facilities and equipment. The organization and administration with regard to doctorantura are the same as for aspirantura.

Admission to doctorantura is competitive, available to citizens (the age limit is 40 years) who are holders of Candidate of Sciences degrees and are already known for their contributions in their fields. Candidates must hold posts of responsibility in teaching and/or research testifying to the high level of their academic and scientific work and their capacity to substantially contribute to the solution of fundamentally important social, economic, and cultural problems.

The main admission requirements for doctoral programmes are the following: scientific achievement in a chosen speciality; a complete outline for a dissertation; scientific publications; and the recommendation of employers including an assessment of the applicant's research. Decision-making with regard to the admission of candidates to doctorantura is the responsibility of the Academic Council of the institution and is based on scientific reports by candidates on the subjects of their dissertations as well as on individual programmes of research and on the conclusions of the departments or other scientific subdivisions of the institution. The subject of dissertations and the individual programmes and time-periods necessary for their completion are approved by the Academic Council. Proposed time-periods may not exceed three years.

The qualifying requirements for a doctoral dissertation are higher than those for a Candidate dissertation. The dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Sciences should be an advanced work in which an important scientific problem, having economic, socio-cultural, or political significance, is solved; or it should present scientifically-based technical, economic, or technological ideas, the implementation of which would make a considerable contribution to scientific and technological progress.

Doctoral programmes consist only of research. A scientific consultant, a holder of the Doctor of Sciences degree, may be appointed to advise doctoral students (doctorants) on their dissertation research. If necessary, doctorants can be sent to other leading research centres in the country or abroad to pursue their studies and to do research. Doctorants annually present a report on the results of the work accomplished, as measured against their individual programmes, to the Academic Council which is responsible for monitoring their progress and for reaching decisions as to their continuation in doctorantura.

In the course of study, a doctorant must complete his or her doctoral thesis, receive its preliminary evaluation in the given institution, and submit the thesis to the Dissertation Council. The Dissertation Council for the defense of the dissertation for the Doctor of Sciences degree is designated by the Supreme Certifying Committee and consists of Doctors of Sciences. Such a council may also conduct defenses for dissertations for the Candidate of Sciences degree.

The defense procedure for the degree of Doctor of Sciences is the same as for the Candidate of Sciences degree. The Dissertation Council receives the recommendations as to the award or non-award of the degree. The final decision regarding the award of a Doctor of Science degree is taken by the Supreme Certifying Committee, following which the applicant is awarded the Doctor of Sciences diploma (Annex 2, Fig. 17).

The degree of Doctor of Sciences is a prerequisite for appointment to the post of professor in a higher education institution.

Another route leading to the Doctor of Sciences degree is the transfer of the holders of Candidate of Sciences degrees employed in higher education establishments from teaching to research posts for a period of up to two years in order for them to prepare their dissertations. The requirements for this procedure are the same as those for joining doctorantura, except for the age limit, which for the former is forty-five years of age.

The third route for the earning of the Doctor of Sciences degree is the preparation of a dissertation on one's own, combining work and research without any of the advantages or privileges provided by the other routes described above. In this case, there is no age limit for the defense of the dissertation leading to the degree of Doctor of Sciences.

 

15. RECOGNITION OF CREDENTIALS

In the Russian Federation, two national bodies deal with the recognition of diplomas and degrees. The Ministry for General and Professional Education is in charge of the recognition of diplomas and degrees related to higher professional education, and the Supreme Certifying Committee is responsible for the recognition of doctoral degrees. All the activities on the recognition and equivalence in the country are coordinated by the Russian Interagency Council on the Recognition of Higher Education Certificates, Degrees, and Periods of Study (Council of Equivalence).

For the recognition of diplomas and degrees obtained abroad related to higher professional education, an applicant should submit the following documents to the Ministry for General and Professional Education:

  • an application;
  • an education certificate (an original or a legally certified copy);
  • a supplement to the certificate, if any (an original or a legally certified copy).

The applicant may also submit other documents certifying his or her education, including those related to qualifications for professional activities, practical training, etc. All the documents must be accompanied by certified translations into Russian. When necessary, the Ministry for General and Professional Education may require additional information and materials from the Russian or foreign institutions concerned.

When analyzing the submitted documents, the following questions are taken into consideration:

  • whether or not the educational establishment which granted the educational certificate is officially recognized in the home country;
  • whether or not the educational certificate is officially recognized in the home country;
  • whether or not there is an international agreement which envisages the recognition of the given certificate in the Russian Federation;
  • the existence of a precedent for the recognition of the given certificate in the Russian Federation;
  • the content of curricula and syllabi;
  • entrance examinations;
  • the number of academic hours for each subject studied;
  • the examination system;
  • the grades earned for the period of education;
  • practical training courses and their duration;
  • final attestation (final examinations and thesis);
  • form of education;
  • complementary education;
  • rights granted to the holder of the certificate in the home country.

Much greater attention is paid to the acquired knowledge and skills than to differences in curricula and to methods of teaching. Having analyzed the submitted documents, the Ministry for General and Professional Education reaches a decision in regard to the equivalence of the foreign certificate with one of the Russian diplomas. The decision can also be based on international agreements on recognition matters to which the Russian Federation is a signatory, or on intergovernmental agreements on exchange programmes, or on a precedent.

The recognition (nostrification) of doctoral degrees obtained abroad is undertaken by the Supreme Certifying Committee of the Russian Federation. The organization-employer of the foreign doctoral degree holder should apply to the Supreme Certifying Committee, submitting the following documents:

- an application by the head of the organization-employer;

- the personal record of the applicant's employment and research activities;

- a copy of the higher education diploma;

- a list of publications;

- a copy of the foreign doctoral diploma (translated into Russian) which is to be the object of nostrification.

The final decision as to the equivalence of the foreign doctoral diploma with one of the two Russian doctoral degrees (Candidate of Sciences or Doctor of Sciences) is taken by the collegium of the Supreme Certifying Committee.

The Russian Federation is a Contracting State to the main international conventions on recognition matters: the UNESCO Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas, and Degrees Concerning Higher Education in the States Belonging to the Europe Region; the UNESCO Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas, and Degrees Concerning Higher Education in Asia and the Pacific; and the conventions of the Council of Europe on recognition matters. In addition, the Russian Federation has signed bilateral international agreements on the recognition of diplomas and degrees with more than sixty countries.

 

 

16. LIST OF REGULATIONS

16.1. Laws

The Constitution of the Russian Federation of 12 December 1992.

The Law of the Russian Federation On Education of 10 July 1992 and its new edition of 13 January 1996.

The Law of the Russian Federation On Higher and Postgraguate Education of 22 August 1996.

 

16.2. Decrees of the Government of the Russian Federation

Decree of the State Committee for Higher Education of 23 October 1993.

Standard Statutes for General Education Establishments of 31 August 1994.

Standard Statutes for Part-Time (Evening) General Education Establishments of 3 November 1994.

Standard Statutes for Vocational Education Establishments of 5 June 1994.

Standard Statutes for Non-University Level Higher Education Establishments of 14 October 1994.

Standard Statutes for University Level Higher Education Establishments of 26 June 1993.

Standard Statutes for Educational Establishments of Complementary Professional Education of 26 June 1995.

State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education of 12 August 1994.

State Educational Standard of Non-University Level Higher Professional Education of 18 August 1995.

Decree on the Award of Academic and Research Personnel with Advanced Academic Degrees and on the Conferment of Academic Titles to Researchers of 24 October 1994.

Decree on the Conferment of Academic Staff of University Level Higher Education Establishments and of Educational Establishments of Complementary Professional Education of 13 July 1995.

Decree for the State Accreditation of Higher Education Establishments of 2.12.99 No. 1323.

 

16.3. Decrees of the Ministry for General and Professional Education (State Committee for Higher Education)

Procedure for the Recognition and Equivalence of Diplomas and Degrees in Non-University and University Level Higher Education as well as in Postgraduate Education of 6 December 1995.

Training of Academic and Research Personnel of 31 May 1995.

Admission Procedures for State University Level Higher Education Establishments of 27 December 1995.

Admission Procedures for State Non-University Level Higher Education Establishments.

Introduction of the Multi-Level Structure of Higher Education of 13 March 1992.

Requirements for Specimens of State Documents Testifying the Completion of Non-University Level Higher Education of 27 December 1995.

Requirements for Specimens of State Documents Testifying the Completion of University Level Higher Education of 30 November 1994.

State Licensing of Non-University and University Level Higher Education Establishments and Institutions of Postgraduate Professional Education of 7 February 1994.

State Accreditation of State Non-University and University Level Higher Education Establishments of 29 April 1993.

Externat in State University Level Higher Education Establishments of 28 October 1993.

State Accreditation of Non-University and University Level Higher Education Establishments of 30 November 1994.

State Final Attestation of Graduates of University Level Higher Education Establishments of 25 May 1995.

Training of Academic and Research Personnel in the System of Postgraduate Professional Education of the Russian Federation of 27.03.98 No. 814;

Application Procedure to Higher Education Institutions in the Russian Federation of 24.02.98 No. 500;

Procedure for Student Transfer from one Higher Education Institution to Another of 24.02.98 No. 501;

Standard Statutes for the Branches of Higher Education Institutions Subordinated to the Federal Executive Authorities of 16.03.99 No. 643;

ANNEXES

Annex 1. THE UNESCO WORKING GROUP ON RUSSIAN QUALIFICATIONS

Annex 2. COPIES OF CREDENTIALS

Annex 3. GLOSSARY

Footnotes:

1 The terms "access" and "admission" are used as defined in the Council of Europe/UNESCO Draft Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications Concerning Higher Education in the Europe Region, i.e., "access" as the right of the candidate to apply for admission to higher education, and "admission" as the act of allowing qualified applicants to pursue their studies in higher education.

2 This interpretation reproduces paragraph 33 of the Council of Europe/UNESCO Draft Recommendation on General Criteria and Procedure for the Evaluation of Foreign Qualifications

 

 

 

 

 

 

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